IAS 41 Agriculture

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The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment and disclosures related to agricultural

activity.

Agricultural activity is the management by an entity of the biological transformation and harvest of biological

assets for sale or for conversion into agricultural produce or into additional biological assets. Biological

transformation comprises the processes of growth, degeneration, production, and procreation that cause

qualitative or quantitative changes in a biological asset. A biological asset is a living animal or plant.

Agricultural produce is the harvested product of the entity’s biological assets. Harvest is the detachment of

produce from a biological asset or the cessation of a biological asset’s life processes.

IAS 41 prescribes, among other things, the accounting treatment for biological assets during the period of

growth, degeneration, production, and procreation, and for the initial measurement of agricultural produce at

the point of harvest. It requires measurement at fair value less costs to sell from initial recognition of biological

assets up to the point of harvest, other than when fair value cannot be measured reliably on initial recognition.

This Standard is applied to agricultural produce, which is the harvested product of the entity’s biological

assets, only at the point of harvest. Thereafter, IAS 2 Inventories or another applicable Standard is applied.

Accordingly, this Standard does not deal with the processing of agricultural produce after harvest; for example,

the processing of grapes into wine by a vintner who has grown the grapes.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly

transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Costs to sell include commissions to brokers

and dealers, levies by regulatory agencies and commodity exchanges, and transfer taxes and duties. Costs to

sell exclude transport and other costs necessary to get assets to a market. Such transport and other costs are

deducted in determining fair value (that is, fair value is a market price less transport and other costs necessary

to get an asset to a market).IAS 41 requires that a change in fair value less costs to sell of a biological asset be included in profit or loss for

the period in which it arises. In agricultural activity, a change in physical attributes of a living animal or plant

directly enhances or diminishes economic benefits to the entity.

IAS 41 does not establish any new principles for land related to agricultural activity. Instead, an entity follows

IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment or IAS 40 Investment Property, depending on which standard is

appropriate in the circumstances. IAS 16 requires land to be measured either at its cost less any accumulated

impairment losses, or at a revalued amount. IAS 40 requires land that is investment property to be measured at

its fair value, or cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Biological assets that are physically attached to

land (for example, trees in a plantation forest) are measured at their fair value less costs to sell separately from

the land.

IAS 41 requires that an unconditional government grant related to a biological asset measured at its fair value

less costs to sell to be recognized in profit or loss when, and only when, the government grant becomes

receivable. If a government grant is conditional, including when a government grant requires an entity not to

engage in specified agricultural activity, an entity should recognize the government grant in profit or loss

when, and only when, the conditions attaching to the government grant are met. If a government grant relates

to a biological asset measured at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment

losses, IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance is applied.

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